suspect classification doctrine

3026 results for suspect classification doctrine

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  • 457 U.S. 202 (1982), 80-1538, Plyler v. Doe

    ... undocumented resident aliens cannot be treated as a "suspect class," and although education is not a "fundamental right," so s to require the State to justify the statutory classification by showing that it serves a compelling governmental interest, ... state action for which the suspect classification doctrine was designed, .         the court held that it was ...

  • 553 U.S. 591 (2008), 07-474, Engquist v. Oregon Dept. of Agriculture

    ... has typically been concerned with governmental classifications that "affect some groups of citizens differently than others." ... Constitution does not require repudiating that familiar doctrine. Finally, the Court is guided, as in the past, by the ... Engquist's claims of discrimination for membership in a suspect class-her race, sex, and national origin claims-but found in her ...

  • 448 U.S. 448 (1980), 78-1007, Fullilove v. Klutznick

    ... for determining the constitutionality of racial classifications that provide benefits to minorities for the purpose of remedying ... to a free people whose institutions are founded upon the doctrine of equality." .          Loving v. Virginia, supra at ... proffers a compelling interest to support reliance upon a suspect classification, the means selected must be narrowly drawn to ...

  • 429 U.S. 190 (1976), 75-628, Craig v. Boren

    ...71, and later cases establish that classification by gender must substantially further important governmental ... applied when "fundamental" constitutional rights and "suspect classes" are not present. *. .         I view this as ... of our own preferences in the development of this new doctrine, the thousands of judges in other courts who must interpret the ...

  • ___ U.S. ___ (2013), 12-307, United States v. Windsor

    ... including a documented history of discrimination, classifications based on sexual orientation should be subject to a heightened ... process, " perhaps sensing the disrepute into which that doctrine has fallen, but that is what those statements mean. Yet the ... does not view the classification at issue as "inherently suspect, " Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena, 515 U.S. 200, 218, 115 ...

  • 505 U.S. 833 (1992), Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey

    ...Pp. 846-853.         (c) Application of the doctrine of stare decisis confirms that Roe's essential holding should ...) (invalidating surgical removal of bullet from murder suspect); Rochin v. California , 342 U.S. 165 (1952) (invalidating ... any more elaborate basis on which to base such a classification.         In construing the phrase "liberty" incorporated ...

  • 478 U.S. 186 (1986), 85-140, Bowers v. Hardwick

    ... for its law beyond its conformity to religious doctrine. See, e.g., McGowan v. Maryland , 366 U.S. 420, 429-453 (1961); ... the more controversial question whether homosexuals are a suspect class. See, e.g., Rowland v. Mad River Local School District, ... of Sexual Orientation: Homosexuality as a Suspect Classification, 98 Harv.L.Rev. 1285 (1985). 3 Even if a court faced with a ...

  • 473 U.S. 432 (1985), 84-468, City of Cleburne, Texas v. Cleburne Living Center, Inc.

    ... reversed, holding that mental retardation is a "quasi-suspect" classification; that, under the applicable "heightened scrutiny" ...McLaughlin, 323 U.S. 101, 105 (1944) ("If there is one doctrine more deeply rooted than any other in the process of ...

  • 515 U.S. 200 (1995), 93-1841, Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena

    ...Pp. 210-212. .          2. All racial classifications, imposed by whatever federal, state, or local governmental actor, ... to a free people whose institutions are founded upon the doctrine of equality," and that "racial discriminations are in most ... the civil rights of a single racial group are immediately suspect . . . [and] courts must subject them to the most rigid scrutiny." ...

  • 430 U.S. 762 (1977), 75-5952, Trimble v. Gordon

    ...Pp. 766-776.         (a) A classification based on illegitimacy such as that challenged here is not ... to hold that classifications based on illegitimacy are "suspect," so that any justifications must survive "strict scrutiny." We ... adoption, this Court had developed a consistent body of doctrine which could reasonably be said to expound the intent of those who ...

  • 411 U.S. 1 (1973), 71-1332, San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez

    ...The District Court, finding that wealth is a "suspect" classification and that education is a "fundamental" right, ....        [93 S.Ct. 1311] This doctrine is no more than a specific application of one of the first ...

  • 405 U.S. 56 (1972), 70-5045, Lindsey v. Normet

    ... offend the equal protection safeguard "only if the classification rests on grounds wholly irrelevant to the achievement of the ... traits such as race 21 and lineage 22 are inherently suspect, and must be justified by some "overriding statutory purpose." ...Bozanich , 397 U.S. 82), this Court's abstention doctrine that requires litigants to start all over again in a state court ...

  • 394 U.S. 618 (1969), 9, Shapiro v. Thompson

    ... to residents of less than one year creates a classification which constitutes an invidious discrimination denying them equal ... by an expansion of the comparatively new constitutional doctrine that some state statutes will be deemed to deny equal protection ... classifications which either are based upon certain "suspect" criteria or affect "fundamental rights" will be held to deny ...

  • 463 U.S. 1032 (1983), 82-256, Michigan v. Long

    ... and subsequent patdown search for weapons of a person suspected of criminal activity, it did not restrict the preventive search ... constitutional claim, relying in part on the state law doctrine of laches. Writing for the Court in response to the Nebraska ... until 1978, when it was removed from the narcotic classification. We would conclude that the seizure of marijuana in Michigan is ...

  • 438 U.S. 265 (1978), 7811, Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

    ...Title VI proscribes only those racial classifications that would violate the Equal Protection Clause if employed by a ... and ethnic classifications of any sort are inherently suspect and call for the most exacting judicial scrutiny. While the goal ... . whose institutions are founded upon the doctrine of equality. .          Hirabayashi, 320 U.S. at 100. ...

  • 517 U.S. 620 (1996), 94-1039, Romer v. Evans

    ... that neither burdens a fundamental right nor targets a suspect class so long as the legislative classification bears a rational ... it, are not only unimpeachable under any constitutional doctrine hitherto pronounced (hence the opinion's heavy reliance upon ...

  • 358 F.3d 804 (11th Cir. 2004), 01-16723, Lofton v. Secretary of Dept. of Children and Family Services

    ... of the welfare of the child, the state can make classifications for adoption purposes that would be constitutionally suspect in ...1061, 1068, 117 L.Ed.2d 261 (1992) (noting that the doctrine of judicial restraint requires even the Supreme Court to exercise ...

  • 440 U.S. 568 (1979), 77-1427, New York City Transit Authority v. Beazer

    ...% of the employees referred to TA's medical director for suspected violations of its narcotics rule were either black or Hispanic ... If there is one doctrine more deeply rooted than any other in the process of ... after one year of treatment or later -- the classification will inevitably discriminate between employees or applicants ...

  • 406 U.S. 164 (1972), 70-5112, Weber v. Aetna Cas. & Surety Co.

    ... of the Fourteenth Amendment, as the inferior classification of these dependent children bears no significant relationship to ...1408] Since Levy was a constitutional holding, its doctrine is open to later reexamination to a greater extent than if it had ... Slaughter-House Cases that racial classifications are "suspect." See, e.g., Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967). But during ...

  • 476 U.S. 267 (1986), 84-1340, Wygant v. Jackson Board of Education

    ... (a) In the context of affirmative action, racial classifications must be justified by a compelling state purpose, and the means ... to a free people whose institutions are founded upon the doctrine of equality," .          Loving v. Virginia , 388 U.S. ..."Racial and ethnic distinctions of any sort are inherently suspect, and thus call for the most exacting judicial examination." ...

  • 553 U.S. 164 (2008), 06-1082, Virginia v. Moore

    ...Arrest ensures that a suspect appears to answer charges and does not continue a crime, . . . ... more than the affirmance of a great constitutional doctrine of the common law," 3 Commentaries on the Constitution of the ...He emphasizes Virginia's classification of driving on a suspended license as a nonarrestable misdemeanor. ...

  • 528 U.S. 62 (2000), 98-791, Kimel v. Florida Bd. of Regents

    ...Age is not a suspect classification under the Equal Protection Clause. See, e.g., ...Neither the Eleventh Amendment nor the doctrine of sovereign immunity places any limit on that power. See ...

  • 403 U.S. 365 (1971), 609, Graham v. Department of Pub. Welfare

    ... broad discretion to classify as long as its classification has a reasonable basis. Lindsley v. Natural Carbonic Gas Co. , ... those based on nationality 5 or race, 6 are inherently suspect and subject to close judicial scrutiny. Aliens as a class are a ... the continuing validity of the special public interest doctrine in all contexts. There, the Court held that California's ...

  • 509 U.S. 86 (1993), 91-794, Harper v. Virginia Dept. of Taxation

    ...In holding that state-law retroactivity doctrine permitted the solely prospective application of the ruling, the ... an opinion stating that the current Michigan classification is unconstitutional or in violation of the statute, there are ... that their taxing schemes might be constitutionally suspect. Denying Davis retroactive relief thus would not deny ...

  • 457 U.S. 957 (1982), 80-1290, Clements v. Fashing

    ... equal protection principles under which state law classifications need only be drawn in such a manner as to bear some rational ... only when the challenged statute places burdens upon "suspect classes" of persons or on a constitutional right that is deemed .... 6 Baca may not utilize the "overbreadth" doctrine to challenge § 19. Baca may not challenge the provision's ...