retorsion international law
Non-compliance with awards: the remedies of customary international law.
..." (4) on the one hand, and on the other hand, responses against international wrongful acts that may not entail the use of force, i.e., "retorsion" and "non-forcible countermeasures." The latter two are particularly relevant for the focus of this panel, and therefore, a more detailed ...
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND THE FIFTH DOMAIN.
...Rational Agents C. Assessing AI Agents III. INTERNATIONAL LAW AND CYBER OPERATIONS A. Cyberspace B. International Law C. Applying ... to a state's ability to respond under a plea of necessity or retorsion. . In order to comply with international law, an AI softbot will need to ...
- The Syrian Intervention: Assessing the Possible International Law Justifications
Enforcing the nuclear nonproliferation regime: the legality of preventive measures.
...-established under relevant treaties, state practice, and the international monitoring system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), norms ... do not violate general principles of international law (i.e., retorsion). The second category involves measures that may otherwise violate ...
Efficient breach of international law: optimal remedies, "legalized noncompliance," and related issues.
...argue, it has the ability to punish those who violate international law with actions that do not themselves violate international law ("retorsion" (90)), including certain economic sanctions, the withdrawal of foreign aid, and diplomatic protest. . There is some merit to this point as well. ...
- The Cyber Road Ahead: Merging Lanes and Legal Challenges
Self-help and the separation of powers.
...I will focus on the international law doctrine of countermeasures, which allows states to take certain ... mundanely, the international system allows a wide scope for retorsions: nonforcible acts of lawful retaliation, such as the limiting of ...
159 U.S. 113 (1894), Hilton v. Guyot
... affected by fraud or prejudice or that, by the principles of international law and by the comity of our own country, it is not entitled to full ... government, and not for its courts, to adopt the principle of retorsion...
The emergence of cyber deterrence: implications for international law.
... which such a cyber attack constitutes the use of force; and the availability of state responses, such as self-defense, countermeasures, and retorsion. Gary Brown, a professor of cybersecurity at the United States Marine Corps University and formerly the first Senior Legal Counsel for U.S. Cyber ...
- Occupation in Iraq: Issues on the Periphery and for the Future: A Rubik's Cube Problem?
International legal compliance: surveying the field.
...Notes that the only universally effective mechanism for ensuring compliance with international law remains the traditional system of retorsion and reprisal. Concludes that the ineffectiveness of enforcement suggests not that scholars and practitioners should abandon efforts to enhance ...
- Cyber Warfare
Duties owed: low-intensity cyber attacks and liability for transboundary torts in international law.
...49, at 328-33. For retorsions (the appropriate term if the response involves only unfriendly, but not illegal, actions), see Thomas Giegerich, Retorsion, in Max Planck ...
A new copyright order: why national courts should create global norms.
... scholars and by policymakers in the field is the need for international solutions to figure prominently in the reform and evolution of present ... (76) Moreover, no "state invoked the doctrine of retaliation and retorsion theoretically available under international law for violation of ...
Sanctions, countermeasures, and the Iranian nuclear issue.
ABSTRACT . The international community's response to Iran's nuclear development program highlights the ...In some cases, these measures have been in the nature of retorsions (i.e., unfriendly yet otherwise legal acts meant to signal disapproval of ...
. A phrase used in INTERNATIONAL LAW to describe retaliatory action taken by one foreign government against another for the stringent or harsh regulation or treatment of its citizens ...
Governmental Illegitmacy in International Law.
...In the first view, international law permits states to impose acts of retorsion on other states. Acknowledging the right of a state to impose an act of retorsion follows from the strict view that each country has a sovereign ...
The Falklands (Rlaiwnas) Islands. An Internatmnal Law Analysis of The Dispute Between Argennna and Great Britain
... self-determination IS a relative$ recent prin~ ciple of international law and still in an evolutionary state. Its development will he reriewed. ... law there existed four recognized methods of self-help retorsion, repnsali, intervention, and self-defense Prior to a state resorting to ...
Investor-state dispute settlement between developed countries: reflections on the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement.
... to bring direct claims against a host state before an international tribunal without exhausting domestic remedies. This has resulted in a ..., mediation, judicial and arbitral proceedings, reprisals, retorsion, severance of diplomatic relations, economic pressure and, the final ...
The decision to exercise power-a perspective on its framework in interkational law
The author discusses the self-help meuupes of retorsion, reprisal, and intervention, as they relate to international law. His ...
United States' Moral Authority Undermined: The Foreign Affairs Costs of Abusive Detentions
Introduction. I. The United States' Claim to Moral Authority in Opposition to Abusive Detentions. II. The United States' Practice of Abusive Detentions. A. Guantanamo Bay Detentions. B. Detentions of Hamdi and Padilla. C. Iraqi Prison Abuses. III. The United States' Moral Authority Has Been Weakened. IV. The Costs of Weakened Moral Authority. A. The Impact on Public Image and Credibility. B....
. Jeff Cassin has a B.A. in International Affairs with a Concentration in International Politics from The George ...position in the international community and lead to acts of retorsion or reprisal, even war. Under the U.S. system of separation of powers, ...
Political judging: when due process goes international.
... the doctrine of res judicata does not rest in discretion; and it is for the government, and not for its courts, to adopt the principle of retorsion, if deemed under any circumstances desirable or necessary." (337) . Retorsion is "[a]n act of lawful retaliation in kind for another nation's ...