economic disparity definition

4698 results for economic disparity definition

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  • 488 U.S. 469 (1989), 87-998, City of Richmond v. J. A. Croson Co.

    ...Reliance on the disparity between the number of prime contracts awarded to minority ..., including past societal discrimination in education and economic opportunities, as well as both black and white career and ... faults Richmond's ordinance for including within its definition of "minority group members" not only black citizens, but also ...

  • 430 U.S. 482 (1977), 75-1552, Castaneda v. Partida

    ... for testing qualifications, no inference explaining the disparity by reference to the literacy, sound mind, moral character, and ...1285] achieved some measure of economic or political success, and thereby have gained some acceptability ..., since the data are incomplete in some places and the definition of "literacy" would undoubtedly be the subject of some dispute in ...

  • 554 U.S. 471 (2008), 07-219, Exxon Shipping Co. v. Baker

    ..., brought against Exxon, Hazelwood, and others to recover economic losses suffered by respondents (hereinafter Baker), who depend on ... that Hazelwood was a managerial employee under this definition, see App. G, id., at 264a, n. 8, and the jury found both ... . explained, "the disparity between the two jury verdicts .. [w]as a reflection of the ...

  • 509 U.S. 443 (1993), 92-479, TXO Production Corp. v. Alliance Resources Corp.

    ...The dramatic disparity between the actual damages and the punitive award is not ...-basis scrutiny that is appropriate for reviewing state economic legislation.         TXO, on the other hand, argues that ... interjurisdictional comparisons on such matters as the definition of first-degree murder (Schad) or the penalty imposed on ...

  • 476 U.S. 267 (1986), 84-1340, Wygant v. Jackson Board of Education

    ... cases involving proof of discrimination by statistical disparity focuses on those disparities that demonstrate such prior ...All of the economic powers of the predominantly white teachers' union were brought to ..., 424 U.S. 747 (1976). 13 The Board's definition of minority to include blacks, Orientals, American Indians, and ...

  • 438 U.S. 422 (1978), 76-1560, United States v. United States Gypsum Co.

    ...-mind component into an offense even when the statutory definition did not in terms so provide. See, e.g., Morissette v. United ... from the gray zone of socially acceptable and economically justifiable business conduct. Indeed, the type of conduct charged ...In so doing, we must try to avoid "the variety, disparity and confusion" of judicial definitions of the "requisite but ...

  • 511 U.S. 531 (1994), 92-1370, BFP v. Resolution Trust Corporation.

    ..., fair market value presumes market conditions that, by definition, do not obtain in the forced-sale context, since property sold .... local radiations in the vast network of our national economic enterprise and thereby radically readjusts the balance of state ...R. 18, 21 (Bkrtcy. Ct. Conn. 1990) ("[S]ome disparity between the value of the collateral and the value of debt does ...

  • Prohibitions and Restrictions on Proprietary Trading and Certain Interests in, and Relationships with, Hedge Funds and Private Equity Funds

    The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC'' or ``Commission'') is adopting a final rule to implement Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the ``Dodd-Frank Act''), which contains certain prohibitions and restrictions on the ability of a banking entity and nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the

    ... 75.3: Prohibition on Proprietary Trading and Related Definitions. a. Definition of ``Trading Account''. b. Rebuttable ... addition, the Agencies invited comments on the potential economic impacts of the proposed rule and posed a number of questions ... is a lack of price continuity, lack of depth, or if a disparity between supply and demand exists or is reasonably anticipated. ...

  • Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act

    The Department of Labor (DOL or the Department) issues this Final Rule to implement titles I and III of the (WIOA). Through these regulations, the Department reforms and modernizes our nation's workforce development system. This rule provides the framework for changes for statewide and local workforce development systems to increase the employment, retention, earnings, and occupational skill...

    ... the alignment of workforce investment, education, and economic development systems, in support of a comprehensive, accessible, ... 20 CFR part 603............ 20 CFR part 603. Definitions/Introduction to 20 CFR part 660............ 20 CFR part ... borders, asserting that this would decrease economic disparity between communities. Another commenter recommended that the ...

  • 440 U.S. 268 (1979), 77-1119, Orr v. Orr

    ...We have also recognized. [r]eduction of the disparity in economic condition between men and women caused by the long ...A gender-neutral alimony statute, by definition, treats husbands and wives the same. Presumably, therefore, a ...

  • What If More Speech Is No Longer the Solution? First Amendment Theory Meets Fake News and the Filter Bubble.

    ...(5) . In 2013, the World Economic Forum presciently highlighted "massive digital misinformation" as ...This is a reflection of the fact that "by definition, news is what the public does not know." (137) For these reasons, ...(172) The explanation for this disparity once again takes us back to the role of partisanship--in this ...

  • Introduction to the Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions-Fall 2016

    Publication of the Unified Agenda of Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions and the Regulatory Plan represent key components of the regulatory planning mechanism prescribed in Executive Order 12866, ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735) and incorporated in Executive Order 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review'' issued on January 18, 2011 (76 FR 3821). The fall editions of...

    ... entries for rules that are likely to have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities and entries that ... and reaffirms the principles, structures, and definitions governing contemporary regulatory review that were established in ...The disparity could lead to fewer donations of HSCs by bone marrow aspiration, ...

  • Criminal law pays: penal law's contribution to China's economic development.

    ... is not coextensive with, the term white-collar crime, which is fraught with its own definitional issues. (219) . A comprehensive survey of individual provisions in the 1979 Criminal Law is beyond ... reform will focus on how to increase residents' income, narrow the income distribution disparity and regulate the distribution order, said a statement from the State Council."); see also Benjamin ...

  • Stream Protection Rule

    We, the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE or OSM), are revising our regulations, based on, among other things, advances in science, to improve the balance between environmental protection and the Nation's need for coal as a source of energy. This final rule will better protect water supplies, surface water and groundwater quality, streams, fish, wildlife, and related...

    ... B. Section 701.5: Definitions. C. Section 701.16: How will the stream protection rule apply ... In terms of economic impacts, we estimate that the rule will result in an average ...These commenters assert that this alleged disparity creates regulatory inconsistency and should be addressed for ...

  • 539 U.S. 558 (2003), 02-102, Lawrence v. Texas

    ... adults involving force, between adults implicating disparity in status, or between men and animals.  The longstanding ....         Laws such as economic or tax legislation that are scrutinized under rational basis ...      In any event, an "emerging awareness" is by definition not "deeply rooted in this Nation's history and tradition[s]," as ...

  • 517 U.S. 559 (1996), 94-896, BMW of North America, Inc. v. Gore

    ...324, 335-336. Accordingly, the economic penalties that a State inflicts on those who transgress its laws, ... degree of reprehensibility of the nondisclosure; the disparity between the harm or potential harm suffered by Dr. Gore and his ... imposed is unconstitutional; such an award is by definition excessive, since it attaches a penalty to conduct undeserving of ...

  • Mount Lemmon Fire District v. Guido, 110618 FEDSC, 17-587

    ... subdivisions to the definition of "person[s],". specifying that those entities are engaged ... Title VII, but this disparity is a consequence of the. different language Congress chose ... v. Arkansas Council on Economic Educ, 154 F.3d 892 (CA8. 1998) (same); EEOC v. Monclova, ...

  • Cross-Border Security-Based Swap Activities; Re-Proposal of Regulation SBSR and Certain Rules and Forms Relating to the Registration of Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security-Based Swap Participants

    The Securities and Exchange Commission (``SEC'' or ``Commission'') is publishing for public comment proposed rules and interpretive guidance to address the application of the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (``Exchange Act''), that were added by Subtitle B of Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``Dodd-Frank Act''), to cross-bord

    ..., in the context of the security-based swap dealer definition, for affiliated groups with a registered security-based swap ... 5. Trade Execution Practices. 6. Broad Economic Considerations of Cross-Border Security-Based Swaps. (a) ... described in proposed Rule 3Ca-3(b) create competitive disparity between similarly situated persons competing in the same market? ...

  • Assistance to States for the Education of Children With Disabilities; Preschool Grants for Children With Disabilities

    The Department postpones by two years the date for States to comply with the ``Equity in IDEA'' or ``significant disproportionality'' regulations, from July 1, 2018, to July 1, 2020. The Department also postpones the date for including children ages three through five in the analysis of significant disproportionality, with respect to the identification of children as children with disabilities...

    ... that the status quo had high, long-term social and economic costs to children with disabilities and to society. These ...Lower courts have similarly concluded that ``disparity does not, by itself, constitute discrimination,'' see Belk v. ... sound, the regulations should be postponed because the definition of disproportionality amounted to a racial classification, which ...

  • 830 F.3d 216 (5th Cir. 2016), 14-41127, Veasey v. Abbott

    ... encompasses Section 2's definition of what kinds of. burdens deny or abridge the right to ...Id. According to Dr. Ansolabehere, this disparity is ". statistically significant and 'highly unlikely to ... that " [t]he great deference due state economic. regulation does not demand judicial blindness to the ...

  • Determination of Royalty Rates and Terms for Ephemeral Recording and Webcasting Digital Performance of Sound Recordings (Web IV)

    The Copyright Royalty Judges announce their determination of rates and terms for two statutory licenses (permitting certain digital performances of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings) for the period beginning January 1, 2016, and ending on December 31, 2020.

    ...The Judges ``shall base their decision on economic, competitive, and programming information presented by the ...See NAB Proposed Rates and Terms at 2 (definition of eligible transmission) (Oct. 7, 2014). No other party's rate ... by the Services and SoundExchange are marked by a wide disparity. Although it is unsurprising that adverse parties would have ...

  • VA Compensation and Pension Regulation Rewrite Project

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) proposes to reorganize and rewrite its compensation and pension regulations in a logical, claimant-focused, and user-friendly format. The intended effect of the proposed revisions is to assist claimants, beneficiaries, veterans' representatives, and VA personnel in locating and understanding these regulations.

    ... the scope of the regulations in new part 5, general definitions, and general policy provisions for this part. We published this ... Regarding the disparity noted by the commenter, we first note that it is not inconsistent ... Disabilities does not provide compensation for non-economic loss, such as pain and suffering and loss of enjoyment of life, ...

  • A return to Dred Scott? How recent Supreme Court jurisprudence reflects Dred Scott's legal reasoning and fails to protect the most vulnerable in today's society.

    ... and control their body politic, (2) preservation of economic substantive due process rights for capital holders, and (3) ...A. Protection for the State's Definition of its Own Body Politic? . The concept of the body politic has ... 2000 and Beyond, from John Logan ed., Diversity and Disparity: American Enters a New Century 120 (2014)(noting that the Great ...

  • Copyright and distributive justice.

    ... disempowered people, people at the bottom of the socio-economic hierarchy? In this Article we engage these questions. Our goal is ... start with some existing society where there is already disparity of income. . Let us stipulate that the existing inequalities at ...-protected work, it is possible to argue that by definition he or she loses nothing: the exchange of money for the work is at ...